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Cartilage restoration procedures now viable for the over 40s


Two new studies at the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) and presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, has found that cartilage restoration surgery, using various types of “plugs” to fill the hole or damaged area, is a viable treatment for people over 40. Dr Riley J Williams III, a lead author …

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People with psoriasis experience widespread bone loss


Scientists from the Genes, Development and Disease Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), have discovered the molecular communication that is established between inflamed skin and loss of bone mass, which means that people with psoriasis experience widespread bone loss as a result of the disease. The study, which was led by Erwin Wagner, and published in …

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What Is an Allergy?


Allergies are a type of adverse reaction resulting from inappropriate immune responses to a variety of environmental agents and can be classified as being either immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated. During the course of normal immune function, the body produces immunoglobulins such as IgA, IgG, and IgM, to many environmental agents, including microbes, dusts, pollens, and …

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Alcoholic Liver Disease


Alcoholic liver disease is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States with similar or higher mortality rates in Western European countries where wine is considered a dietary staple. The three stages of alcoholic liver disease include, first, alcoholic fatty liver, which can occur after short-term drinking and is completely reversible with abstinence; …

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Alcohol: Metabolism and Health Effects


Although alcohol is a nutrient containing 7.1 kcal g 1, it is also one of the most abused and addictive drugs in the world and is consumed by about two-thirds of adult Americans. Most consumers of alcoholic beverages are moderate drinkers, while about 13% are alcohol abusers whose habit has resulted in risks of harm, including …

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Children’s Health


While much of the international focus on aflatoxin contamination has been framed within its carcinogenic properties, many of its other toxic effects can have both short- and longterm health consequences. In South Asia, where both maternal health status and child health status are seriously compromised, the potential effects of aflatoxin exposure are most likely manifested in …

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Human Liver Cancer and Aflatoxin


Collectively, liver cancer, including HCC, accounts for 5.7% of all reported cancer cases and is the sixth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide. Globally, the incidence of liver cancer varies enormously, and the incidence of this fatal disease is much higher in economically less-developed countries of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Nearly 700000 new cases and over 300000 …

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Aflatoxin: A Global Public Health Problem


 Discovery and Exposure to Aflatoxin The aflatoxins were discovered in the early 1960s, when they were identified as causative agents of ‘turkey X’ disease, an epidemic involving deaths of thousands of young turkeys, ducklings, and chicks fed with diets containing certain lots of peanut meal originating in South America. Careful investigations revealed that toxicity was …

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Aeromonas in Human Health


From 1954, when Aeromonas was first associated with the death of a 40-year-old-woman in Jamaica, to the present date, the role of this bacterium in human colonization and infection is still much debated. Although Aeromonas does not belong to the human enteric microbiota, it has been demonstrated that it is present in 1% of the …

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